colleagues in devoting my career to warning the PUBLIC about the
CARCINOGENIC/MUTAGENIC effects of RADIATION to which the PUBLIC has
been SECRETLY & PURPOSEFULLY EXPOSED by CORPORATE CRIMINALS &
TREASONOUS PAID-PUBLIC-SERVANTS for the purposes of COVERT WARFARE
& CORPORATE PROFITS.
Most recently Updated 4/15/04
Click here to <http://www.emfbioeffects.org/report.html> view: A
possible association between fetal/neonatal exposure to
electomagnetic radiation and the increased incidence of Autism
Spectrum Disorders (ASD)
<http://www.emfbioeffects.org/info.html> More Info
Cell Phones Cell Phone Towers Portable Telephones
Transmitting Pagers WLAN
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"... there is no known safe level of <http://www.emfbioeffects.org/#safe>
radiofrequency radiation exposure."
"... RF radiation can cause tissue <http://www.emfbioeffects.org/#RF>
damage with a single exposure ... "
"...1990 EPA study that reviewed the <http://www.emfbioeffects.org/#EPA>
scientific literature and found radiofrequency radiation to be
"... people have the right to know <http://www.emfbioeffects.org/#know>
The Associated Bioelectromagnetics Technologists provide this forum,
which is comprised of independent scientific researchers and other
individuals dedicated to disseminating the findings of published
research. Each takes an active role in performing investigative
research and/or reporting the biological effects of man-made
electromagnetic fields with respect to humans and the environment.
Through this site we present, in terms suitable for the general
public, the information provided in the extensive scientific
literature base that is relevant to the issue of radiofrequency
radiation and other electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure hazards.
Statements made herein are based on published scientific reports
that, generally, have been ignored by the media and unpublicized
by the telecommunication and power industries.
Let us commence at a time near the beginning of scientific understanding
regarding radiofrequency radiation exposure to humans. It was also
a time when the newly emerging telecommunication industry could
have taken steps to ward off the present sharp and justified
implications that have recently been leveled against it. The
implications, supported by the published evidence, clearly indicate
what the industry and our government knew, when they knew it, and
what could have been done to prevent the current crisis of confidence.
During 1955 biophysics researchers under contract with the U.S.
Navy reported that in order to prevent deep-tissue burning,
radiofrequency radiation exposures should not take place when an
exposed individual is wearing or carrying any metal objects such
as hair pins, metal implants, buckles, coins, or metal-framed eye
glasses, "[a]s any of these objects may concentrate the field and
When considering tissue burning the researchers pointed out that
radiation can be absorbed deeply and is actually greater in tissue
such as muscle or the brain compared to the poorer absorption in
the bone and fatty layers near a body surface. They also noted that
radiofrequency energy exposure of arterially blocked tissue can
result in serious tissue damage and cautioned against exposure of
ischemic individuals, those suffering from any such arterial
blockages, to radiofrequency radiation.
Even in normal, non-ischemic individuals, the body must compensate
for the absorption of radiofrequency radiation through an increase
in blood flow to carry away excess energy. However, for a given
exposure, the compensation mechanism does not take effect immediately,
but occurs over a period of minutes. These researchers reported
that maximum increased blood flow, that is maximum compensation,
took place only near the end of an exposure. Prior to that time the
body was not fully coping, in the thermal sense, with the absorbed
radiation. But in any event, they were considering compensation
only in the thermal equilibrium context and emphatically indicated
that microwave or radiofrequency radiation exposure should be avoided
Extending that early research to our present circumstances causes
us to consider, in particular, the portable cell phone and other
radiofrequency radiating devices such as the wireless local area
network. In that pre-cell-phone era those researchers were not
focused on the effects from portable devices, but their work is a
wonderful indication of what the scientific community had determined
long before the personal communication revolution became reality.
As long ago as 1967, Biological effects researchers determined,
through experiment with living tissue, that exposure to radiofrequency
radiation, such as that emitted by cellular telephones or portable
phones, causes chromosome damage in the cells of that tissue. The
researchers also reported finding fragmented nuclei and fragmented
chromosomes among the cells that had been exposed to radiofrequency
radiation. It is important to note that the radiation exposures
were performed at a radiation level that rules out any effects due
to overt heating, and was at a level identical to that which cell
phone users experience. Further, it is generally accepted that
chromosome and nucleus damage can be the initiator in a process of
mutagenic transformation, cancer. Other researchers have repeatedly
confirmed the initial reports.
During 1977 another U.S. Navy-funded researcher reported that his
experiments of exposing primates to radiofrequency radiation resulted
in "gross morphological damage in the brains" of the test subjects.
For example, this researcher reported that Rhesus monkeys exposed
to 10 mw/cm2, for 2 - 3 weeks, exhibited considerable brain tissue
damage. Analysis of the brain tissue after the animals were
"sacrificed" indicated cloudy endoplasm, uncharacteristic phagocytosis
and evidence of change to the blood-brain barrier. Observation of
heavily damaged cells, those having experienced severe morphological
change, indicated that the damage was not repairable.
Soon thereafter, this researchers funding was cancelled, the remaining
laboratory animals were killed, and he was out of work.
Berman, et al, have reported in Health Physics (Dec. 1978, Pp. 791
- 801) the results of exposing mouse fetuses to radiofrequency
radiation (2.45 GHz). Radiation exposure took place daily for 100
minutes during the gestation period. The work was performed at the
Environmental Protection Agency Health Effects Research Laboratory
from September 1974 through December 1976. After inducing the birth
of the fetuses of each litter, the researchers examined the RF
radiation exposed neo-natal mice to determine the presence of any
gross external morphologic alterations. The experiments were performed
at a number of different power levels, resulting in a correspondingly
different RF radiation absorption level for each exposed group
ranging from 0.2 mw/g to 2.2 mw/g. In total there were 318 RF
radiation exposed litters and 336 unexposed control litters. Each
litter was comprised of about ten mice. 12 control litters exhibited
defects while there were 27 exposed litters with morphologic defects.
(3.6% control 8.5% exposed) The experimental end-point was to
determine if RF radiation could be causal with respect to fetal
malformation. As such, long-term data, such as cancer incidence,
was not provided.
The researchers concluded from the data that fetal exposure to RF
radiation resulted in a significant increase in the number of litters
that contained malformed (morphologically damaged) fetuses. In
particular, they noted that cranioschisis (brain hernia, or exposed
brain) was observed at all exposure levels, the lowest being about
0.2 mw/g, which is a lower level than the radiation absorption in
humans from many presently available portable cell phones. Cranioschisis
was not found in any of the control litters. The researchers also
reported a significantly lower birth weight among the litters exposed
to the highest radiation level - about 2.2 mw/g. The stunting effect
was determined to be permanent.
Kaplan, et al, have reported in Radio Science, Sept. - Oct. 1982,
Pp. 135 - 144 the effects of exposing squirrel monkey fetuses and
neo-natal squirrel monkeys to various levels of radiofrequency (RF)
radiation of 2.45 GHz for 3 hours per day and five days per week.
The authors selected the squirrel monkey "because of its similarities
to man in prenatal and postnatal environment". This work was performed
during 1977 at SRI International, formerly the Stanford Research
Institute, under a funding grant from the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency. The results were submitted for publication during
1978, accepted for publication during 1980, and subsequently published
during 1982. Calorimetric assessment was used to determine the
average radiation absorption rate (SAR). For the experiment the
researchers selected 0.0 mw/g (control), 0.034 mw/g, 0.34 mw/g, and
3.4 mw/g as the RF exposure levels. Only the last of these, 3.4
mw/g falls beyond the present RF radiation exposure maximum limit.
Pregnant dams and, of course, their respective fetuses were exposed
to the RF radiation five days per week, commencing with the second
trimester of gestation. This was in spite of prior knowledge that
morphologic defects were previously indicated to be more prevalent
when RF radiation exposure of a fetus is commenced during organogenesis
- the first trimester. In addition to the fetal exposure about
one-half of the squirrel monkeys continued to be exposed for 6
Three of the thirty-three pregnant mothers in the exposed group
died a few days after birth of the fetuses and without any prior
Previously, over a five-year period of experiments, no such unexplained
spontaneous deaths occurred. There were no deaths of mothers from
the control group. The mothers that died were exposed to 0.34 mw/g
or 3.4 mw/g Nine of the exposed neo-natal squirrel monkeys died
during the first few months after birth. Two such deaths were for
animals exposed only pre-natally and were from the lowest exposure
group, 0.034 mw/g. A third death occurred to a pre-natally exposed
animal at four days after birth. Six of the animals that were exposed
post-natally also died. Two were from the 0.34 mw/g exposure group
and four were from the 3.4 mw/g exposure group.
None of the eight control mothers or their offspring died.
Since the purpose of the experiment was to note visually apparent
morphological damage, no efforts were made to perform post-mortem
microscopic examination to ascertain any part that neoplasia or
micro-focal tissue mass might have had in the infant deaths. A
series of maze experiments were conducted during the sixth through
eighth week of age for all surviving infants of each group. The
authors noted a significant cognitive retardation among the animals
exposed to all RF radiation levels.
The test parameter was to determine the percent of exposed animals
that could traverse the maze, and thereby reach the mother, in 30
seconds or less. The unexposed (control) infants achieved an 80%
success level during week 6 and 100% success at ages 7 and 8 weeks.
Each of the exposed groups performed less well. The group exposed
to 3.4 mw/g pre-natally and post-natally completed the task only
40% of the time. The group exposed to the same energy density only
pre-natally completed the task 0% of the time during the sixth and
seventh weeks. During the eighth week they completed the maze 50%
of the time.
CHICAGO, July 22 /PRNewswire/ -- The cell phone headset has become
popular as a way to reduce the cognitive impairment and cancer risk
associated with radiofrequency (RF) radiation exposure. However,
the possibility of embryonic and fetal damage is now increasing as
the radiating cell phone units are being moved elsewhere on or near
the body. In many cases the devices are relocated immediately
adjacent to the area where an embryo or fetus is carried. Researchers
have emphatically reported that an embryo/fetus should not be exposed
to radiofrequency radiation, such as that emitted by the portable
cell phone or portable telephone. One particular reason to avoid
RF radiation exposure during pregnancy is that an embryo/fetus may
not be fully protected by amniotic fluid for extended periods of
time due to the natural movement of the mother or the embryo/fetus
within the womb. Secondly, the pelvic structure promotes deep RF
radiation penetration and that radiation can be absorbed within the
Published research results continue to reinforce the general
understanding that human exposure to RF radiation can cause damaging
These effects include chromosome damage, DNA damage, cancer, memory
loss, and cognitive impairment. One area not yet adequately
investigated by researchers may determine the significance of any
link between the increasing rate of Autism Spectrum Disorder or,
Pervasive Developmental Disorder, and damage to an embryo or fetus
caused by increasing levels of RF radiation exposure. During this
time of increased Autism/PDD incidence, no other environmental
substance has become so globally widespread as has human-generated
During the last several years, industry-funded researchers have
repeatedly reported a link between RF radiation exposure and genetic
damage. After making their results known many of those researchers
have found that their research programs were prematurely terminated.
This also happened to researchers a generation ago when RF radiation
biological effects were first made known.
Be aware that research findings, both industry-sponsored and
independently conducted, continue to yield additional data that
show the same results.
Human exposure to RF radiation, electromagnetic fields, at levels
typically encountered by using a portable cellular telephone or
living in close proximity to a cell tower may be hazardous to your
health, or to your unborn child's health.
During 1982, Motorola researchers reported that the electric field
close to the head of a human operating a portable radio was so high
that the only way to comply with radiation exposure standards was
to reduce the radiation to such a low level that the device would
be useless as a communication tool.
But, it seems that it was easier to change the radiation standard
than it was to change the design of the cell phones even as they
were still being developed. With the guidance of Motorola engineers,
and with no scientific basis, the exposure standard was changed to
make the cell phone wholly and entirely exempt from any provisions
of any existing radiation exposure safety standard. And with that
unfounded exemption the die was cast for unfettered marketing and
development of a complete product line that has been repeatedly
shown to create damage in those exposed to the products radiations.
In 1983 University of Washington researchers, funded by the U.S.
Air Force, reported that exposure of laboratory animals to low-level
radiofrequency radiation resulted in a nearly four-fold, (400%)
increase in malignant cancers among the exposed animals. This was
a long-term study, spanning more than two years of daily RF radiation
exposures and evaluations. Again, the exposure level was lower than
that which is typically experienced by operating present generation
Periodically throughout the test period some animals were "sacrificed"
and examined. For the final analysis there remained 12 exposed and
11 control animals from the 100 exposed and 100 controls that formed
the population at the outset.
Although the researchers recorded a four-fold increase in malignancies
it can be proposed that the cancer incidence would have been even
higher if the lab animals had been allowed to live out their full
lives rather than being "sacrificed" during the two years of the
The long-term exposure study was designed specifically to learn the
effects of RF radiation exposure to children. The frequency and
exposure levels were determined with that in mind. However, the
significant result of increased malignant tumor incidence has never
been reported publicly with that relationship.
These are but a select few examples, taken from hundreds of published
reports, of what the telecommunication industry has known since the
earliest time of the development and sale of the portable cell phone
to the unsuspecting public.
Swicord and Sagripanti, Int. J. Radiation Biology, 1986, vol. 50,
47 50, observed a strong resonant absorption when plasmid DNA was
exposed to radiofrequency radiation at 2550 MHz. The researchers
state that, " we have investigated physiochemical changes. This
work reports an observed power-dependent and temperature-dependent
irreversible effect on DNA molecules including single- and double-strand
breaks as shown by an accompanying increase in the linear (uncoiled)
forms of the molecule."
"Connection with experimental and epidemiological studies suggesting
carcinogenic, mutagenic and chromosome-damaging effects cannot be
The absorbed energy levels were reportedly from 2.0 to 8.5 mw per
gram. The resonant absorption frequency is near the frequency range
used for the present PCS devices, 1700 1900 MHz.
At the time of publication the researchers were employed with the
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
The correlation between the frequency of micronuclei and specific
chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes exposed to microwave
radiation in vitro.
Garaj-Vrhovac V, Fucic A, Horvat D Mutat Res 281(3):181-186, 1992.
Samples of human blood cells were exposed to continuous microwave
radiation, frequency 7.7 GHz, power density 0.5, 10 and 30 mW/cm2
for 10, 30 and 60 min. A correlation between specific chromosomal
aberrations and the incidence of micronuclei after in vitro exposure
In all experimental conditions, the frequency of all types of
chromosomal aberrations was significantly higher than in the control
samples. In the irradiated samples the presence of dicentric and
ring chromosomes was established. The incidence of micronuclei was
also higher in the exposed samples. The results of the structural
chromosome aberration test and of the micronucleus test were
The values obtained showed a positive correlation between micronuclei
and specific chromosomal aberrations (acentric fragments and dicentric
chromosomes). The results of the study indicate that microwave
radiation causes changes in the genome of somatic human cells and
that the applied tests are equally sensitive for the detection of
the genotoxicity of microwaves.
Sarkar, et al, performing research at the Institute of Immunology,
New Delhi, India reported (Mutation Research 1994, vol. 320, pp.
141 - 147) that they have observed DNA rearrangement (damage) of
brain and testes cells taken from laboratory animals following
exposure to low-level (1 mw/cm2) microwave radiation. The authors
acknowledge that, "according to studies of Sagripanti and Swicord
(1986), microwave radiation may cause both single and double strand
breaks in the DNA molecule and this damage can be correlated to
mutagenic and cancerogenic changes (Sargentini and Smith 1985)."
"The present study definitely shows low power effects", induced by
microwave radiation exposure, whereas control specimens did not
exhibit any similar DNA damage. The damage (rearrangement) observed
by the authors is, clearly, indicative of a significant post-exposure
effect consistent with unrepairable DNA strand breaks associated
with large segments of the DNA macromolecule.
Chuang, H. R. performed a series of numerical experiments to determine
the radiation absorption effects due to operating a radio transceiver
at cellular telephone frequencies (840 MHz) in close proximity to
a human head or abdomen. The results, reported in the IEEE Transactions
on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 42, no.4, April 1994, indicate
that the amount of radiation absorbed into the human body is directly
related to the separation between the body and radiating transmitter.
For a 5 cm (2-inch) separation 29 % of the radiation is absorbed
into the body. At a head-to-transmitter separation of 1.0 cm (about
0.4 inches) 71 % of the transmitter
Similarly, for a separation of 0.6 cm between the transmitter and
the abdomen 85 % of the radiation is absorbed into the human body.
The findings are consistent with the research results reported by
others at about the same time. (See, for example, Andersen, 1993,
or Toftgard, 1993)
For a transmitting device operating at the maximum power level (0.6
watts) for analog portable cell phones in the U.S., a peak radiation
absorption of 3.5 milliwatts per gram (3.5mw/g) is noted - far in
excess of any past or present "safe" exposure limits. The authors
state that: "the head absorbs more than 80 % of the power . . . due
to the stronger EM coupling of the closer distance which enhances
the penetrating power into the head. In a certain situation (such
as this case), a 'focusing' effect may occur."
A brief, but important, digression from our more general consideration
of exposures to RF radiation focuses on a particular hazard to
police patrol officers.
Davis RL, Mostofi FK, Cluster of testicular cancer in police officers
exposed to hand-held radar. Am J Ind Med 24(2):231-233, 1993. Within
a cohort of 340 police officers, six incident cases of testicular
cancer occurred between 1979 and 1991 (O/E 6.9; p <>
Occupational use of hand-held radar was the only shared risk factor
among all six officers, and all routinely held the radar gun directly
in close proximity to their testicles. Health effects of occupational
radar use have not been widely studied, and further research into
a possible association with testicular cancer is warranted.
During 1995, Lai & Singh published, Bioelectromagnetics, vol.16,
no. 3, Pp.
207, 210, the results of radiofrequency radiation exposure experiments
performed with laboratory animals, the purpose of which was to
ascertain any observable effects to the DNA comprising the brain
cells of the exposed specimens.
The researchers assessed the levels of DNA single-strand breaks in
the brain cells of laboratory rats exposed to low-intensity
Immediately after 2 hours of exposure to pulsed microwaves, no
significant effect was observed. However, a dose rate-dependent
increase in DNA single-strand breaks was found in brain cells of
rats at 4 hours post-exposure. Furthermore, in rats exposed for 2
hours to continuous-wave 2450 MHz microwaves, increases in brain
cell DNA single-strand breaks were observed immediately as well as
at 4 hours post-exposure.
Shortly thereafter these same researchers, Lai & Singh, reported (
Int J Radiat Biol 69(4):513-521, 1996) that similar radiofrequency
radiation exposures produced DNA double-strand breaks. "An increase
in both types of DNA strand breaks was observed after exposure to
either the pulsed or continuous-wave radiation, No significant
difference was observed between the effects of the two forms of
radiation. We speculate that these effects could result from a
direct effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic energy on DNA
molecules and/or impairment of DNA-damage repair mechanisms in brain
cells. Our data further support the results of earlier in vitro and
in vivo studies showing effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic
radiation on DNA."
Bortkiewicz A, Zmyslony M, Gadzicka E, Szymczak W, Evaluation of
selected parameters of circulatory system function in various
occupational groups exposed to high frequency electromagnetic fields.
II. Electrocardiographic changes. Med Pr 47(3):241-252, 1996. "The
effect of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the circulatory and nervous
systems has been the subject of great interest for many years, since
electric impulses generated in these systems by outer ("external")
electric and magnetic fields can theoretically disturb their
functions. The only data on chronic effects of weak EMFs on the
human body come from the studies carried out in the Soviet Union
between the fifties and the seventies. In view of the growing number
of persons exposed to EMF, there is an urgent need for verifying
those data by means of modern diagnostic methods. That is the reason
why the study of the EMF effect on the circulatory system has been
initiated. It covered 71 workers at four AM broadcast stations, 40
workers at ten radio link stations and 42 workers at three
radioservices. Workers' exposure to EMF was evaluated (see part I).
Subjective and objective medical examinations were performed in all
workers in order to assess their state of health, then resting
electrocardiogram, Holter measurements, and high intensity ECG were
taken, and variation in cardiac rhythm was analyzed by a long-term
recording of blood pressure. The results of the analysis of the
questionnaire survey as well as the Holter and resting ECG examinations
are presented. The study indicates that exposure to EMF in parameters
found in AM broadcast stations increases risk for electrographic
disturbances (detected by means of resting ECG and a 24-hour Holter
recording) by six times "(a six-fold increase)" in comparison with
that in radio link station workers not exposed to medium wave EMF.
In radio-service workers this risk was twice as high as that in
link station workers. It seems that in AM broadcast station workers,
resting ECG should be complemented by a 24-hour Holter measurements,
particularly, if workers complain of circulatory system disturbances."
Balode, Z, Assessment of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation
by the micronucleus test in bovine peripheral erythrocytes. Sci
Total Environ 180(1):81-85, 1996.
Previous bioindicative studies in the Skrunda Radio Location Station
area have focused on the somatic influence of electromagnetic
radiation on plants, but it is also important to study genetic
effects. We have chosen cows as test animals for cytogenetical
evaluation because they live in the same general exposure area as
humans, are confined to specific locations and are chronically
exposed to radiation. Blood samples were obtained from female Latvian
Brown cows from a farm close to and in front of the Skrunda Radar
and from cows in a control area. A simplified alternative to the
Schiff method of DNA staining for identification of micronuclei in
peripheral erythrocytes was applied. Microscopically, micronuclei
in peripheral blood erythrocytes were round in shape and exhibited
a strong red colour. They are easily detectable as the only coloured
bodies in the uncoloured erythrocytes. From each individual animal
2000 erythrocytes were examined at a magnification of x 1000 for
the presence of micronuclei. The counting of micronuclei in peripheral
erythrocytes, 0.6 per 1000 in the exposed group and 0.1 per 1000
in the control, demonstrates a statistically significant six-fold
increase (P <>
Magras, IN, Xenos, TD, RF radiation-induced changes in the prenatal
development of mice. Bioelectromagnetics 18(6):455-461, 1997.
The possible effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation on prenatal
development has been investigated in mice. This study consisted of
RF level measurements and in vivo experiments at several places
around an "antenna park." At these locations RF power densities
between 168 nW/cm2 and 1053 nW/cm2 were measured. Twelve pairs of
mice, divided in two groups, were placed in locations of different
power densities and were repeatedly mated five times. One hundred
eighteen newborns were collected. They were measured, weighed, and
examined macro- and microscopically. A progressive decrease in the
number of newborns per dam was observed, which ended in irreversible
During 1998 Phillips, et al, published the results of a series of
laboratory experiment performed as part of a research program funded
by Motorola. In that report (Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics,
vol. 45, 1998, Pp. 103 110), the researchers have reported that
exposure of cells to very low-level radiofrequency radiation, at
the cell phone frequency of 836 MHz, consistently resulted in an
observable variation of DNA damage.
The experiments were performed at two power levels and using two
types of radiofrequency signals commonly employed for cell phones.
At the lower power level of exposure the subsequent evaluation
determined that the net result was a reduced level of DNA damage.
At the higher power level increased DNA damage was identified for
one of the signal types while reduced DNA damage was identified for
the second signal type. In every instance, for each exposure and
for each type of signal, the result demonstrated a measurable effect
of either increased or decreased DNA damage, which the researchers
attribute to the radiofrequency radiation.
From the study results the researchers do not conclude if the changes
in measured DNA damage are due to concurrent increased damage with
inhibited repair or unchanged damage with enhanced repair (RF energy
The researchers do state that, " our data indicate that exposure
to RF signals under athermal conditions altered the amount of DNA
More recently, throughout the 1990s and into this 21st century we
have witnessed a consistently growing body of research data, coming
from all points worldwide, which reports DNA damage, chromosome
aberrations, micronucleus formation, memory loss, altered cell
proliferation rates, nervous system disorders, EEG changes, and
increased cancers, each caused by exposure to radiofrequency radiation
(RF) such as that emitted by the cell phone or its companion base
Velizarov, S, Raskmark, P, Kwee, S, The effects of radiofrequency
fields on cell proliferation are non-thermal. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg
The number of reports on the effects induced by radiofrequency (RF)
electromagnetic fields and microwave (MW) radiation in various
cellular systems is still increasing. Until now no satisfactory
mechanism has been proposed to explain the biological effects of
these fields. One of the current theories is that heat generation
by RF/MW is the cause, in spite of the fact that a great number of
studies under isothermal conditions have reported significant
cellular changes after exposure to RF/MW. Therefore, this study was
undertaken to investigate which effect MW radiation from these
fields in combination with a significant change of temperature could
have on cell proliferation. The experiments were performed on the
same cell line, and with the same exposure system as in a previous
work [S. Kwee, P.
Raskmark, Changes in cell proliferation due to environmental
non-ionizing radiation: 2. Microwave radiation, Bioelectrochem.
Bioenerg., 44 (1998), pp.
251-255]. The field was generated by signal simulation of the Global
System for Mobile communications (GSM) of 960 MHz. Cell cultures,
growing in microtiter plates, were exposed in a specially constructed
chamber, a Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) cell. The Specific
Absorption Rate (SAR) value for each cell well was calculated for
this exposure system. However, in this study the cells were exposed
to the field at a higher or lower temperature than the temperature
in the field-free incubator i.e., the temperature in the TEM cell
was either 39 or 35 +/- 0.1 degrees C. The corresponding sham
experiments were performed under exactly the same experimental
conditions. The results showed that there was a significant change
in cell proliferation in the exposed cells in comparison to the
non-exposed (control) cells at both temperatures. On the other hand,
no significant change in proliferation rate was found in the
sham-exposed cells at both temperatures. This shows that biological
effects due to RF/MW cannot be attributed only to a change of
temperature. Since the RF/MW induced changes were of the same order
of magnitude at both temperatures and also comparable to our previous
results under isothermal conditions at 37 degrees C, cellular stress
caused by electromagnetic fields could initiate the changes in cell
cycle reaction rates. It is widely accepted that certain classes
of heat-shock proteins are involved in such stress reactions.
We also observe that during 1998 industry engineers finally confirmed
the obvious and reported their own test results, which confirmed
that the newer, smaller portable cell phones with short, stubby
antennas expose humans to much higher electromagnetic fields than
the prior generation phones. The higher field intensity causes
increased RF radiation absorption and tends to degrade phone
These research facts, which the industry claims to still be seeking,
are known and have been known since long before the first cell
phones were ever introduced; since before the first cellular base
station was ever erected, and before the first WLAN was ever placed
in your childs classroom.
Zotti-Martelli L, Peccatori M, Scarpato R, Migliore L, Induction
of micronuclei in human lymphocytes exposed in vitro to microwave
Mutat Res 472(1-2):51-58, 2000.
The increasing applications of electromagnetic field radiating
devices are of great concern with regard to public health. Several
in vitro studies have been conducted to detect effects of microwave
(Radiofrequency) radiation exposure on genetic material the results
of which vary with study protocol.
The micronucleus (MN) assay which has proved to be a useful tool
for the detection of radiation exposure-induced cytogenetic damage
was used in the present study to investigate the genotoxic effect
of microwaves in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro exposed
to electromagnetic fields with different frequencies (2.45 and
7.7GHz) and power density (10, 20 and 30mW/cm(2) for three times
(15, 30 and 60min). The results show that for both radiation
frequencies there was an induction of micronuclei as compared to
the control cultures at a power density of 30mW/cm(2) and after an
exposure of 30 and 60min. This study indicates that microwaves are
able to cause cytogenetic damage in human lymphocytes mainly for
both the high power density and longer exposure time.
Ye J, Yao K, Lu D, Wu R, Jiang H. Low power density microwave
radiation induced early changes in rabbit lens epithelial cells.
Chin Med J (Engl) 114(12):1290-1294, 2001.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether low power density microwave radiation
can induce irreversible changes in rabbit lens epithelial cells and
the mechanisms of the changes. METHODS: One eye of each rabbit was
exposed to 5 mW/cm2 or 10 mW/cm2 power density microwaves for 3
hours, while the contralateral eye served as a control. Annexin
V-propidium iodide (PI) two-color flow cytometry (FCM) was used to
detect the early changes in rabbit lens epithelial cells after
radiation. RESULTS: Many of the rabbit lens epithelial cells were
in the initial phase of apoptosis (cell death) in the 5 mW/cm2
microwave radiation group. A large number of cells became secondary
necrotic cells, and severe damage could be found in the group exposed
to 10 mW/cm2 microwave radiation. CONCLUSION: Low power densities
of microwave radiation (5 mW/cm2 and 10 mW/cm2) can induce irreversible
damage to rabbit lens epithelial cells. This may be a demonstration
of the, (so-called), non-thermal effect of microwave radiation.
Hardell L, Hansson Mild K, Pahlson A, Hallquist A, Ionizing radiation,
cellular telephones and the risk of brain tumours. Europ J Cancer
Prevent 10:523-529, 2001.
A case-control study on brain tumours included 233 patients aged
20-80 years and alive at the study time. They had histopathologically
verified brain tumour and lived in the Upsala-Orebro region (1994-1996)
or in Stockholm region (1995-1996). Two matched controls to each
case were selected from the Swedish Population Register. Two hundred
and nine cases (90%) and 425 controls (91%) answered the questionnaire.
Results are presented for the whole study group, as given here, and
for malignant and benign tumours separately.
Use of a cellular telephone increased the risk of tumours in the
temporal, temporo-parietal and occipital areas of the brain.
Hardell L, Mild KH, Carlsberg M. Case-control study on the use of
cellular and cordless phones and the risk for malignant brain
tumours. Int. J.
Radiat. Biol. 78:931-936, 2002.
Purpose: To investigate the use of cellular and cordless phones and
the risk for malignant brain tumours.
Materials and Methods: A case-control study was performed with 649
patients aged 20-80 years of both sexes each with malignant brain
tumour diagnosed from 1 January 1997 to 30 June 2000. All patients
were alive during the time of the study and had histopathology
verified brain tumours. One matched control to each case was selected
from the Swedish Population Register.
Results: Exposure was assessed by a questionnaire answered by 588
(91%) cases and 581 (90%) controls.
For ipsilateral (same side) radiofrequency exposure, analog mobile
phones gave an odds ratio = 1.85 ( increased incidence = 85 % ) for
all malignant brain tumours. For astrocytoma the increased incidence
was nearly double at 95 % with an odds ratio = 1.95. For all malignant
brain tumors, digital mobile phones yielded an increased incidence
of 59 % or an odds ratio = 1.59, and cordless phones yielded an
increased incidence of 46 % or an odds ratio = 1.46 in the analysis
of ipsilateral exposure.
Conclusion: The use of a cellular phone yielded a significantly
increased incidence of malignant brain tumours occurring on the
same side of the head where the phone was held.
Genotoxicity of radiofrequency signals. I Investigation of DNA
damage and micronuclei induction in cultured human blood cells.
Tice RR , Hook GG , Donner M , McRee DI, Guy AW Bioelectromagnetics
As part of a comprehensive investigation of the potential genotoxicity
of radiofrequency (RF) signals emitted by cellular telephones, in
vitro studies evaluated the induction of DNA and chromosomal damage
in human blood leukocytes and lymphocytes, respectively.
The signals were voice modulated 837 MHz produced by an analog
signal generator or by a time division multiple access (TDMA)
cellular telephone, 837 MHz generated by a code division multiple
access 1909.8 MHz generated by a global system of mobile communication
(GSM)-type personal communication systems (PCS) cellular telephone.
DNA damage (strand breaks/alkali labile sites) was assessed in
leukocytes using the alkaline (pH>13) single cell gel electrophoresis
Chromosomal damage was evaluated in lymphocytes mitogenically
stimulated to divide postexposure using the cytochalasin B-binucleate
cell micronucleus assay. Cells were exposed at 3711 degree C, for
3 or 24 h at average specific absorption rates (SARs) of 1.0-10.0
W/kg. Exposure for either 3 or 24 h did not induce a significant
increase in DNA damage in leukocytes, nor did exposure for 3 h
induce a significant increase in micronucleated cells among
However, Exposure to each of the four RF signal technologies for
24 h at an average SAR of 5.0 or 10.0 W/kg resulted in a significant
and reproducible increase in the frequency of micronucleated
lymphocytes. The magnitude of the response (approximately four-fold
increase) was independent of the technology, the presence or absence
of voice modulation, and the frequency (837 vs. 1909.8 MHz).
This research demonstrates that, under extended exposure conditions,
RF signals at an average SAR of at least 5.0 W/kg are capable of
inducing chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes.
Croft R, Chandler J, Burgess A, Barry R, Williams J, Clarke A. Acute
mobile phone operation affects neural function in humans. Clin
Neurophysiol 113(10):1623, 2002. Mobile phones are used extensively
and yet little is known about the effects they may have on human
physiology. There have been conflicting reports regarding the
relation between mobile phone use and the electroencephalogram
(EEG). The present study suggests that this conflict may be due to
methodological differences such as exposure durations, and tests
whether exposure to an active mobile phone affects EEG as a function
Twenty-four subjects participated in a single-blind fully counterbalanced
cross-over study, where both resting EEG and phase-locked neural
responses to auditory stimuli were measured while a Mobile phone
was either operating or turned off. Mobile phone exposure altered
resting EEG, decreasing 1-4Hz activity (right hemisphere sites),
and increasing 8-12Hz activity as a function of exposure duration
(midline posterior sites). Mobile phone exposure also altered early
phase-locked neural responses, attenuating the normal response
decrement over time in the 4-8Hz band, decreasing the response in
the 1230Hz band globally and as a function of time, and increasing
midline frontal and lateral posterior responses in the 30-45Hz band.
Active mobile phones affect neural function in humans and do so as
a function of exposure duration. The temporal nature of this effect
may contribute to the lack of consistent results reported in the
d'Ambrosio G, Massa R, Scarfi MR, Zeni O, Cytogenetic damage in
human lymphocytes following GMSK phase modulated microwave exposure.
Bioelectromagnetics 23:7-13, 2002. The present study investigated,
using in vitro experiments on human lymphocytes, whether exposure
to a microwave frequency used for mobile communication, either
unmodulated or in presence of phase only modulation, can cause
modification of cell proliferation kinetics and/or genotoxic effects,
by evaluating the cytokinesis block proliferation index and the
micronucleus frequency. In the GSM 1800 mobile communication systems
the field is both phase (Gaussian minimum shift keying, GMSK) and
amplitude (time domain multiple access, TDMA) modulated.
The present study investigated only the effects of phase modulation,
and no amplitude modulation was applied. Human peripheral blood
cultures were exposed to 1.748 GHz, either continuous wave (CW) or
phase only modulated wave (GMSK), for 15 min. The maximum specific
absorption rate ( 5 W/kg) was higher than that occurring in the
head of mobile phone users; however, no changes were found in cell
proliferation kinetics after exposure to either CW or GMSK fields.
As far as genotoxicity is concerned, the micronucleus frequency
result was not affected by CW exposure; however, a statistically
significant micronucleus effect was found following exposure to
phase modulated field. These results would suggest a genotoxic power
of the phase modulation per se.
de Pomerai DI, Dawe A, Djerbib L, Allan, Brunt G, Daniells C. Growth
and maturation of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans following
exposure to weak microwave fields. Enzyme Microbial Tech 30:73-79,
2002. Prolonged exposure to weak microwave fields (750/1000 MHz,
0.5 W) at 250C induces a heat-shock response in transgenic C. elegans
strains carrying hsp16 reporter genes .
A comparable response to heat alone requires a substantially higher
temperature of 280C, suggesting that microwave heating of the system
as a whole might provide a sufficient explanation, although this
can be ruled out by indirect arguments. Here the authors investigated
two further biological consequences of prolonged microwave exposure
at 250C in synchronized cultures of wild-type worm larvae, namely
alterations in (i) growth rate (GR) and (ii) the proportion of worms
later maturing into egg-bearing adults (MP). Both of these parameters
are significantly increased following microwave exposure (GR by
8/11%, and MP by 28/40%), whereas both are significantly decreased
(GR by 10% and MP almost abolished) after mild heat treatment at
280C for the same period. It follows that the biological consequences
of microwave exposure are opposite to, and therefore incompatible
with, those attributable to mild heating. This evidence does not
in itself necessitate a non-thermal mechanism, (although the
non-thermal mechanism is indicated); but it does eliminate explanations
that invoke the bulk heating of tissues by microwaves. This latter,
"bulk heating", however, remains the sole basis for current regulations
governing microwave exposure.
Di Carlo A, White N, Guo F, Garrett P, Litovitz T. Chronic
electromagnetic field exposure decreases HSP70 levels and lowers
cytoprotection. J. Cell.
Biochem. 84: 447-454, 2002. Electromagnetic field (EMF) exposures
have been shown to induce heat shock proteins (HSPs), which help
to maintain the conformation of cellular proteins during periods
of stress. The authors have previously reported that short-term
exposure of chick embryos to either 60 Hz (extremely low frequency:
ELF), or radio-frequency (RF: 915 MHz) EMFs induce protection against
hypoxia. Experiments presented in the current report are based on
a study in which long-term (4 days), continuous exposure to ELF-EMFs
decreased protection against ultraviolet radiation. Based on this
result, it was hypothesized that de-protection against hypoxia
should also occur following long-term, continuous, or daily, repeated
exposures to EMFs. To test this hypothesis, chick embryos were
exposed to ELF-EMFs (8 T) continuously for 4 days, or to ELF or RF
(3.5 mW incident power)- EMFs repeated daily (20, 30, or 60 min
once or twice daily for 4 days). In this study several of the
exposure protocols yielded embryos that had statistically significant
increased hypoxic stress (continuous and 30 or 60 min ELF twice
daily; or 30 or 60 min once daily RF). This is consistent with our
finding that following 4 days of ELF-EMF exposure, HSP70 levels
decline by 27% as compared to controls. In addition, the superposition
of ELF electromagnetic noise, previously shown to minimize ELF-EMF
induced hypoxia protection, inhibited hypoxia de-protection caused
by long term, continuous ELF or daily, repeated RF exposures. This
EMF-induced decrease in HSP70 levels and resulting decline in
cytoprotection suggests a mechanism by which daily exposure (such
as might be experienced by mobile phone users) could enhance the
probability of cancer and other diseases.
Zhang MB, He JL, Jin LF, Lu DQ. Study of low-intensity 2450-MHz
microwave exposure enhancing the genotoxic effects of mitomycin C
using micronucleus test and comet assay in vitro. Biomed Environ
Sci 15(4):283-290, 2002. The authors performed a series of experiments
using human lymphocytes to determine the interaction between 2450-MHz
microwaves (MW) radiation and mitomycin C (MMC).
The synergistic genotoxic effects of low-intensity 2450-MHz microwave
and MMC on human lymphocytes were studied using single cell gel
electrophoresis (SCGE) assay (comet assay) and cytokinesis-blocked
micronucleus (CBMN) test in vitro. The whole blood cells from a
male donor and a female donor were either only exposed to 2450-MHz
microwaves at 5.0 mW/cm2 for 2 h or only exposed to MMC (0.0125
microgram/mL, 0.025 microgram/mL and 0.1 microgram/mL) for 24 h;
and the samples were exposed to MMC for 24 h after exposure to MW
for 2 h. RESULTS: In the comet assay, the comet lengths (29.1 microns
and 25.9 microns) of MW were not significantly longer than those
(26.3 microns and 24.1 microns) of controls (P > 0.05). The comet
lengths (57.4 microns, 68.9 microns, 91.4 microns, 150.6 microns,
71.7 microns, 100.1 microns, 145.1 microns) of 4 MMC groups were
significantly longer than those of controls (P <> or = 0.025
microgram/mL. The MMC plus MW groups exhibited comet tail lengths,
on average of, 28% longer than did the MMC-only groups. In the CBMN,
the micronucleated cell (MNC) rates of MW were 5@1000 and 6@1000,
which illustrated a small 25 - 50% increase compared with those
(4@1000 and 4@1000) of controls (P > 0.05). The MNC rates of 4 MMC
groups were 8@1000, 9@1000, 14@1000, 23@1000 and 8@1000, 8@1000,
16@1000, 30 @1000,respectively. When the doses of MMC were > or =
0.05 microgram/mL, MNC rates of MMC were higher than those of
controls (P <> or = 0.05 microgram/mL, MNC rates of
MW plus MMC groups were much higher than those of controls (P <>
Clearly, we observe in this report that exposure of human cells to
microwave radiation either in concert with, or independent of
Mitomycin C, produces increased, perhaps synergistic, cellular DNA
But what of the cell phone tower? Compared to the portable cell
phone, most people might think that a cell phone tower would pose
a lesser risk of harmful radiation exposure. But such is not
necessarily true. In fact, there is no known safe level of
radiofrequency radiation exposure. Prior to the 1940s the only
radiofrequency radiation that existed was the ultra-low level from
sunlight. Today we are exposed daily to RF radiation levels millions
of times higher than our natural environment provides and to which
our bodies are not adapted. Cell phone towers radiate at power
levels many thousands of times greater than do the portables. So,
distance alone does not necessarily provide protection when making
Most recently, individual school districts have fallen under the
spell of this "wireless revolution" to incorporate wireless local
area networks (WLAN) into the classroom. Through some vague but
ill-conceived desire to be a part of this revolution, school
administrators and educators have forgotten that their primary
obligation is to educate but not expose their wards, your children,
to the unnecessary hazard or harm that may arise from locating RF
radiation emitting WLANs in the classroom or atop school buildings.
Unlike some other carcinogens RF radiation can cause tissue damage
with a single exposure, and with each additional exposure the risk
of permanent genetic damage increases. Although the body is efficient
at repairing some types of RF radiation induced damage it is generally
unable to repair certain other damage, such as DNA double-strand
breaks, known to result from cell phone type RF radiation exposures.
We might expect that our generously funded government agencies,
such as the EPA or FDA, would assume a leadership position at the
forefront of this issue. But, the best they have been able to provide
to date is a recommendation for others to continue the research.
This is in spite of a 1990 EPA study that reviewed the scientific
literature and found radiofrequency radiation to be a probable
carcinogen. Oddly, that study was never officially published or
released to the U. S. Public whose millions of dollars funded its
creation. In effect our government agencies have taken a hands-off
approach to this issue that affects the entire nation, encompasses
all socio-economic groups and favors commercial interests over the
concerns and well being of its citizenry.
Nearly twenty years ago Robert Galvin, at that time the CEO of
Motorola, Inc., lectured on the critical need to gain control of
and access to information. Galvin, a so-called 20th century visionary,
was referring to what he envisioned from the corporate boardroom
as an oncoming information revolution, which would be brought about
by universal availability of the personal computer, portable cell
phone and the internet that evolved to become the world-wide web.
Galvin understood very early that the evolution of the economy from
industry to service to the "information age" was at hand. At the
time of Galvins insightful comments Motorola, AT&T, and other
companies were engaged in a high-stakes competition to bring the
first portable cell phone to the marketplace. That effort became
reality when Motorola introduced the DynaTAC. portable cell phone
Were it not for the lack of competition created by the divestiture
and breakup of AT&T, Motorola would never have realized an early
market dominance that has since been significantly eroded by present
day competitors, such as Nokia and Ericsson. But market dominance
was never an early consideration in portable cell phone development.
The industry researchers and corporate managers projected a very
small demand for the portable cell phone, mostly because they cost
so much - about $3,000.00 each. It was the automobile-mounted cell
phone that was supposed to be the dominant feature of the technology.
Early on the prognosticators projected sales of the portables at
about 50,000 units per year. Today the worldwide sales rate is
closer to one million per day.
But, even while the development of mobile and portable cell phone
products was progressing at a frantic pace, initially at a cost of
hundreds of millions of dollars, no concerted effort was made by
the manufacturers to lay a solid foundation of research experiments
and findings to fully investigate the widely reported hazards to
humans due to use of the radiofrequency radiating products.
It may well be that earlier published research reports, which already
raised the warning flag of biological hazard due to RF radiation
exposure, made the companies inclined to avoid additional research
that would only make matters worse by increasing the unfavorable
knowledge base and raising additional concerns.
Such investigations have been left to the independent researchers
and they have provided results not favorable to continued use of
the portable products. From the earliest, independent researchers
have recommended that these devices should be limited to use for
only a few seconds or a fraction of a minute. But such recommendations
generally are not made public.
Clearly, this is an industry that understands the need for exercising
control of and access to information.
While we understand that no one wants to be told what to do, we
also feel that people have the right to know and make their own
informed decisions based on all of the available information. We
propose to assist those of you who have an interest in learning
more regarding the scientifically reported details of potential
hazard that have been available to the select few for so long.
This site is regularly updated and archived, as inquiries warrant,
with additional and more comprehensive information regarding human
exposure to any human-generated electromagnetic fields (EMFs)
including power line extra low frequency (ELF) fields, RF or microwave
fields and radiation.
For additional information please click here
<http://www.emfbioeffects.org/info.html> or email Quentin Bolino:
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